Read Mahatma Gandhi’s Biography in English includes Information, History, Life Story, Education, Death, Family, Quotes.
Life Story of Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (MK Gandhi) is the Father of the Nation & the priest of truth and non-violence. He was the primary leader and Freedom Fighter of India’s independence movement.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is known as Mahatma among his followers. He was great souled one. He was anti-colonial nationalist, an Indian lawyer, and political ethicist.
In 1900s, he began his activism, as an Indian immigrant in South Africa and in the years following World War I. He became the leader in India’s struggle to gain independence from Britain.
He ran successful nonviolent resistance campaign for India’s independence. He turns inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. In 1914, in South Africa the honorific Mahatma was applied first to him. Now it is used throughout the word.
He is Known for his ascetic lifestyle. He often dressed only in a loincloth and shawl–and devout Hindu faith.
He undertook a number of hunger strikes among injustices. He also undertook hunger strike to protest the oppression of India’s poorest classes. He continued to work toward peace between Hindus and Muslims after Partition in 1947.
In January 1948, a fundamentalist Nathuram Godse shot him to death on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. He is known as the Father of Nation in India. He was known as Bapu also.
Early life & Education:
Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar to a Gujarati, Hindu, Modh Baniya family. His birthday is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence.
His father Karamchand Gandhi was a dewan (C.M) of Porbandar state. His mother Putlibai was his father, Karamchand Gandhi’s fourth wife. Mohandas had two brothers & one sister. He completed his school education from Rajkot.
At that, time he was an average, shy & tongue-tied student, with no interest in games. Books & school lessons were his only companions.
At the age of 13, he got married to 14 years old Kasturbai. The Gandhi couple had four children, all sons: Ramdas, Harilal, Devdas, and Manilal. In November 1887, at the age of 18 Gandhi graduated from high school in Ahmedabad.
He enrolled at Samaldas College in Bhavnagar State in 1888. However, he dropped out & returned to Porbandar with family.
On 10 August 1888, he left Porbandar for Mumbai.On 4 September; he sailed from Bombay to London, with his brother.
There he attended University College, London, a constituent college of the University of London.
There, he studied law and jurisprudence. After that he was invited to enrol at Inner Temple with the intention of becoming a barrister. In June 1891, at the age of 22, he was called to the bar. Then he left London for India.
At the age of 23, in April 1893, he set sail for South Africa to be the lawyer for Abdullah’s cousin. During his stay at South Africa, he developed his political views, ethics and politics.
Mahatma Gandhi as a Freedom Fighter
After returning from his trip to South Africa, saw the inhuman atrocities being done to the Indians by the cruel British rulers, then he resolved to drive out the British from the country and to free the slave India from the clutches of the British.
With a purpose, he completely threw himself into the freedom struggle. He fought many struggles and battles for the independence of the country and by making truth and non-violence his powerful weapon, fought many big movements against the British and finally forced the British to leave India.
He was not only the main architect of the freedom struggle, but he is also known as the great hero of freedom.
Our entire country of India still sings the saga of sacrifice, Gandhiji’s sacrifice in the freedom struggle and shows respect to him.
Mahatma Gandhi Movements List
The list of movements of Mahatma Gandhi is given below –
Khilafat Movement of Mahatma Gandhi (1919-1924) – Mahatma Gandhi Khilafat Andolan
After the poor, laborers, Gandhiji also supported the Khilafat movement run by the Muslims.
This movement was launched to re-establish the post of Caliph of Turkey. After this movement, Gandhiji had also won the trust of Hindu-Muslim unity.
At the same time, it later became the foundation of non-cooperation movement of Mahatma Gandhi.
Champaran and Kheda Movement of Mahatma Gandhi
When the British were ruling India in Champaran and Kheda. Then the zamindars were exploiting the farmers by charging them more taxes.
In such a situation, conditions of hunger and poverty had arisen here. After which Gandhiji agitated for the rights of the farmers living in Champaran.
Which came to be known as Champaran Satyagraha and in this movement was successful in getting back 25 percent of the money to the farmers.
After this, Due to lack of rain, the farmers of Kheda were unable to pay their taxes. Gandhiji put this matter in front of the British government and proposed to waive the rent of poor farmers.
After which the British government accepted this proposal of intense and waived the rent of poor farmers.
In this movement, Mahatma Gandhi made non-violent Satyagraha was his weapon and he won. This created a different image of him among the people.
Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1920) – Mahatma Gandhi Asahyog Andolan
During a meeting in Amritsar’s Jallian Wala Bagh to protest against the Rolex Act, the British office opened fire on innocent people without any reason, in which more than 2000 people present there were injured and more than 1000 people killed.
Mahatma Gandhi was greatly traumatized by this incident, after which Mahatma Gandhi decided to agitate against the British government on the path of peace and non-violence.
Under this, Gandhiji demanded boycott of political, social institutions in British India. In this movement, Mahatma Gandhi prepared the outline of the proposal, it is as follows –
- Boycott of government courts
- Boycott of government colleges
- Boycott of elections to be held under the 1919 Act
- Boycott of foreign malls
Mahatma Gandhi’s Civil Disobedience Movement/Dandi Yatra/Salt Movement (1930) – Mahatma Gandhi Savinay Avagya Andolan/ Dandi March / Namak Andolan
Mahatma Gandhi had started this movement against the British government, under which it was decided not to follow whatever rules were implemented by the British government or it was also decided to oppose these rules.
Let us tell you that the British government had made a rule that no other person or company would make salt.
On March 12, 1930, he broke this law by making salt by Dandi Yatra, he had made salt by reaching a place called Dandi and had disobeyed the law.
Mahatma Gandhi’s Dandi Yatra lasted from 12 March 1930 to 6 April 1930. Dandi Yatra was taken out from Sabarmati Ashram, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
At the same time, seeing this movement growing, the government had sent the then Viceroy Lord Irwin for the agreement, after which Gandhiji accepted the agreement.
Mahatma Gandhi’s Chauri-Chaura Case (1922) – Chauri Chaura Andolan
On February 5, Congress had taken out a procession in Chaura-Chauri village, in which violence erupted, in fact the police tried to stop the procession but the crowd was becoming uncontrollable.
During this, the protesters locked a police station and 21 constables in the police station and set it on fire.
All the people had died due to scorching in this fire, Mahatma Gandhi’s heart was shaken by this incident. After this he wrote in Young India newspaper that,
“I am ready to endure every humiliation, torture, boycott, even death to save the movement from turning violent”
Quit India Movement (1942) –Bharat Chhodo Andolan
Mahatma Gandhi launched the third largest movement against the British rule. This movement was named ‘British Quit India’ – Bharat Chhodo Andolan.
However, Gandhi had to go to jail in this movement. But the supporter of Gandhi continued to run Bharat Chhod Andolan through strikes and sabotage. Although this movement was unsuccessful.
Some of the main reasons for the failure of Mahatma Gandhi’s movement –
In the Quit India Movement, many Indians were thinking that after the freedom struggle, they would get freedom, so this movement also weakened.
This movement was not started simultaneously in the whole country. This movement was started on different dates, due to which its effect was reduced, although farmers and students took part in this movement on a large scale.
Mahatma Gandhi’s movements on the path of peace and non-violence have played an important role in liberating slave India and have left a deep impact in everyone’s life.
Gandhiji’s Quit India movement was not successful, but this movement had definitely made the British rulers realize that now their rule in India will not be able to run anymore and they will have to leave India.
Important things about Mahatma Gandhi’s Quite India movements
All the movements launched by Mahatma Gandhi had some things in common which are as follows –
- These movements were canceled due to any kind of violent activity during the movement.
- All the movements of Gandhiji were carried out peacefully.
- Movements were run on the strength of truth and non-violence.
Mahatma Gandhi as a Social Worker & as a Social Reformer
Mahatma Gandhi was a great freedom fighter and politician as well as a great social worker. Who played an important role in removing all the evils like casteism, untouchability in the country. He had an attitude towards people of all religion, caste, class and gender.
He had dreamed of an India free from caste discrimination. Gandhiji had called the lower, backward and downtrodden classes “Harijan” in the name of God and made tireless efforts to get them equal rights in the society.
Gandhiji put some important facts related to education
- Gandhiji laid more emphasis on education through physical activity, in which children of all age groups should be given work according to their ability.
- Learning from own experience and seeing by doing:- Gandhiji was more inclined to see anything by doing it with learning, he believed that learning by doing and seeing by yourself is the best education.
- So that they can earn more strong thoughts and physical strength while moving forward in life.
- The medium of discussion and question answer among themselves in his view, it is considered very commendable, and he used to give more importance to crafts / crafts etc. than book education.
- Gandhiji was more inclined to teach by coordinating many activities and types of learning, such as painting, handicrafts and crafts, they come close to each other.
Gandhiji had more emphasis on providing fully employable supplementary education to the children above the age of 14 years, so that those children could become capable for employment in the future.
Gandhiji did more work on collaborative action in the education system, initiative and personal responsibility, this conclusion has been given by the “Jhakir Hussain Committee” established for education.
Gandhiji used to give a lot of importance to discipline in education, apart from increasing the self-confidence of the students, he used to advise the teacher class to lead a celibate and restrained life. .
Gandhiji laid more emphasis on developing the qualities of truth, non-violence, tolerance, love, justice and diligence in the students and teachers.
Contribution of Mahatma Gandhi in Education
Before understanding the contribution of Mahatma Gandhi to education, it is very important to understand his idea of education, as;
- Craft centered education will be given.
- Compulsory and free education will be provided to the children between the age of 6 to 14 years.
- Education of loom industry, handicraft etc. will be given, which will include spinning, agriculture, fish farming, spinning wheel, wood work, earth work, weaving, garden work etc.
- The medium of instruction will be only mother tongue and not English.
Gandhiji focused more on the education of making self-reliant, so that the all-round development of the person takes place and human beings can move forward in life on their own. That is why he is seen as the father of the basic education system.
“Father of the Nation”
Mahatma Gandhi, a priest of truth and non-violence, was also given the title of Father of the Nation.
Due to his ideals and great personality, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose first addressed Gandhiji as “father of the country” during a broadcast from Singapore Radio on June 4, 1944.
After this, on 6 July 1944, while broadcasting a message from Radio Rangoon, Netaji addressed Gandhi as the Father of the Nation.
Death of Mahatma Gandhi
Gandhi was shot dead by Nathuram Godse and his associate Gopaldas on 30 January 1948 at Birla House.
At the same time, after the assassination of Gandhiji on January 30, 1948, the country’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru gave the sad news of his death on the radio to the Indians and said that “the Father of the Nation of India is no more”.
Books written by Mahatma Gandhi – Mahatma Gandhi Books
Mahatma Gandhi was not only a great freedom fighter, a good politician but also a great writer.
He has given a wonderful description of the country’s freedom struggle and freedom struggle with his writing skills. He has written in his books on important topics like health, religion, social reform, rural reform.
Let us tell you that Mahatma Gandhi has also worked as an editor in magazines like Indian Open, Harijan, Young India, Navjeevan etc. Following are the names of some of the major books written by him-
- Truth is God
- Hindi Swaraj (1909)
- Satyagraha in South Africa
- India of my Dreams
- Key To Health
- Village Swaraj by Mahatma Gandhi
- Oh my God
- An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth (1927)
- My Religion
Apart from this, Gandhiji has written many more books, which not only tell the truth of the society, but also show his vision.
Slogans of Mahatma Gandhi
Simple living, high thinking great personality Mahatma Gandhi ji has given impressive slogans with some of his great ideas.
Which not only develops the feeling of patriotism among the countrymen, but also inspires them to walk on the path of truth, some popular slogans of Mahatma Gandhi are as follows-
- Your future depends on what you are doing today – Mahatma Gandhi
- Do or die – Mahatma Gandhi
- Strength does not come from physical ability, it comes from an indomitable will – Mahatma Gandhi
- First they will not pay any attention to you, then they will laugh at you, and then they will fight with you, then you will definitely win – Mahatma Gandhi
- Live your life as if you are going to die tomorrow, learn as if you are going to live forever – Mahatma Gandhi
- Misuse of ears pollutes and disturbs the mind – Mahatma Gandhi
- Truth never harms a cause which is just – Mahatma Gandhi
- God has no religion – Mahatma Gandhi
- Happiness will come only when whatever you think, whatever you say and whatever you do are in harmony – Mahatma Gandhi
Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi – Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti
Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated with pomp across the country on 2nd October. On this day the Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi was born in 1869 in the city of Porbandar, Gujarat. Gandhiji was a priest of non-violence, so the day of October 2 is also celebrated as World Non-Violence Day all over the world.
Various programs are organized in schools, colleges and other educational institutions on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti.
On this occasion, many big politicians including the Prime Minister of the country, President, pay their sincere homage to the Gandhi statue built at Raj Ghat in Delhi. Gandhi Jayanti has also been declared a national holiday.
Mahatma Gandhi Biography in Short
Life Work of Mahatma Gandhi at a Glance –
- In 1893 he had to go to South Africa to prosecute Dada Abdulla’s company. When Mahatma Gandhi was in South Africa, he also had to face injustice and atrocities.
- By organizing the Indian people to counter them, he established the “National Indian Congress” in 1894.
- According to the order of the government there in 1906, it was necessary to keep the identity card with you. Apart from this, he started the Satyagraha movement against the apartheid policy.
- Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in 1915 and he first established the Satyagraha Ashram in Sabarmati.
- In the 1920 session of Nagpur, the National Assembly passed a resolution approving the nationwide movement of non-cooperation. All the sources of the non-cooperation movement were given to Mahatma Gandhi.
- In 1924, the President of the National Assembly session at Belgaum.
- Civil disobedience movement started in 1930. The tax on salt and the government monopoly of making salt should be abolished.
- Such a demand was made to the Viceroy, when the Viceroy did not accept that demand, Gandhiji decided to break the law of salt and conduct Satyagraha.
- Gandhiji was present in the Second Round Table Council in 1931 as a representative of the National Assembly.
- In 1932, he founded the All India Harijan Sangh.
- In 1933, he started a newspaper named ‘Harijan’.
- In 1934, Gandhi established this ashram ‘Sevagram’ near Wardha. Harijan service, village industries, village reforms, etc.
- The Java movement started in 1942. Gandhiji gave this new mantra ‘Karege or die’ to the people.
- Mahatma Gandhi in World War II – Mahatma Gandhi urged his countrymen not to fight for Britain. For which he was arrested.
- He again took over the reins of the freedom movement. Finally our country got independence on 15th August 1947. Gandhiji always gave the message of tolerance towards different religions.
- In 1948, Nathuram Godse ended his life with his bullet. The whole world was saddened by this accident.
He also made many efforts to unite Hindu-Muslim in his life. Along with this, Gandhiji’s personality was such that everyone was eager to meet him and got impressed by meeting him.
Mahatma Gandhi was a great man, he did many important things in his life, while the most important thing about Gandhi’s movements was that he faced all the struggles by walking on the path of truth and non-violence.
One who expounds the eternal values of human life with his amazing spiritual power. Mahatma Gandhi, the great and immortal hero of world history, continued to show the path of truth, non-violence and love throughout his life.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi – Mahatma Gandhi was the director of India’s independence movement. Due to his inspiration, India got independence in 1947.
Movies made on Mahatma Gandhi – Mahatma Gandhi Movie
Mahatma Gandhi was a great hero walking on ideals and principles, many films have also been made on his inspirational life.
Apart from this, Gandhiji’s important character has been shown in films made on other patriots and freedom fighters during the freedom struggle. Here we are providing you a list of some of the major films made by Gandhiji, which are as follows-
- Film- ‘Gandhi’ (1982)
Played the character of Gandhiji – Kinsley turned Hollywood artist, Direction – Richard Attenborough
- Film- “The Making of Gandhi”(1996)
Played the character of Gandhiji – Rajit Kapoor, Director- Shyam Benegal
- Film- “Hey Ram” (2000)
Played the role of Gandhiji – Naseeruddin Shah, Director- Kamal Haasan
- Film- “I did not kill Gandhi” (2005) Direction – Jahnu Barua
- Film- “Lage Raho Munnabhai” (2006)
Played the character of Gandhiji – Dilip Prabhavalkar, Director- Rajkumar Hirani
- Film- “Gandhi My Father” (2007)
Played the character of Gandhiji – Darshan Jariwala,Director- Firoz Abbas Mustan
Apart from this, many other films have also been screened on the life of Gandhiji.
Questions on Mahatma Gandhi
Most frequently asked questions on this topic –
What was the full name of Mahatma Gandhi?
Answer: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
In which state of India was Mahatma Gandhi born? (Where was Mahatma Gandhi Born?)
Who was the political mentor of Mahatma Gandhi? (Who was the Political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi?)
Answer: Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
For whom is such an address as the Father of the Nation of India?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi.
What movements did Mahatma Gandhiji make for India’s independence?
Answer: Champaran Movement (1917), Kheda Satyagraha (1918), Non-Cooperation Movement (1920), Dandi March (1930), Quit India Movement (1942).
In which country did Mahatma Gandhi work against apartheid?
Answer: South Africa.
What higher education did Mahatma Gandhi get?
Is there any film based on the life of Mahatma Gandhi?
World Non-Violence Day is celebrated on whose birthday? When does this happen?
Answer: As the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, 2 October is celebrated as ‘World Day of Non-Violence’ all over the world.
When did Mahatma Gandhi die? (When was Mahatma Gandhi Died?)
Answer: 30 January 1948.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi go to South Africa?
Answer: Gandhiji had to go to South Africa in connection with the case of a Muslim business organization named Dada Abdullah and Abdullah.
How old was Mahatma Gandhi when he went to London?
Answer: 18 years.
When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India from South Africa
Answer: In 1915.
How many times did Mahatma Gandhi visit Kerala in his life? (how many times gandhiji visited kerala?)
Answer: Five times (1920, 1925, 1927, 1934, 1937).
When was the Gandhi Irwin Pact signed? (When was the Gandhi Irwin Pact Signed?)
Answer: 5 March 1931.
Which award was returned by Mahatma Gandhi to the British government due to the non-cooperation movement?
Who gave this title of Father of the Nation to Mahatma Gandhi? (Who gave the title Father of Nation to Mahatma Gandhi)
Answer: Subhas Chandra Bose.
Who led the Salt Satyagraha along with Mahatma Gandhi
Answer: Sarojini Naidu.
Who is known by the Gandhi address of the frontiers? (Who is known as Frontier Gandhi?)
Answer: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.
Who is known as American Gandhi? (Who is known as American Gandhi?)
Answer: Martin Luther King Jr.
Who is known as Modern Gandhi? (Who is known as Modern Gandhi?)
Answer: Baba Amte.
Who is known as African Gandhi? (Who is known as African Gandhi?)
Answer: Nelson Mandela.
Fact about Mahatma Gandhi
Some interesting and unheard facts about Mahatma Gandhi –
There are many such interesting and important facts about the life of Mahatma Gandhi, which you hardly know about. About which we will tell you today through this article, which are as follows –
- Mahatma Gandhi, the great hero of freedom, is known to everyone as a brave, courageous and bold leader, but let us tell you that he has written in his autobiography that he was a very shy person in his childhood, even he was hesitant to even talk to classmates.
- Gandhiji’s full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, his father Karam Chand Gandhi was a staunch Hindu and was a Modh Bania by caste. Gandhi was the Diwan of Porbandar, the capital of Gujarat, besides he had also been the Diwan of Rajkot and Bankaner. His mother tongue was Gujarati.
- Mahatma Gandhi was the youngest child of Putlibai and Karamchand Gandhi, he also had two brothers and a sister.
- Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary is celebrated all over the country on 2 October, but the United Nations has declared Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday on 2 October as World Nonviolence Day, so his birthday is also celebrated as International Day of Nonviolence.
- It is believed that on April 12, 1919, Rabindranath Tagore wrote a letter to Gandhiji in which he addressed Gandhiji as ‘Mahatma’. However, scholars have different opinions regarding this too.
- He has also been awarded the “Man of the Year” award by America’s Time Magazine in the year 1930.
- He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize 5 times, but he could never get this award. Because in the year 1948, he was assassinated by Godse even before he got this award. However, the Nobel Committee did not give this award to anyone that year.
- Gandhiji used to walk 18 kilometers every day, according to this journey in his lifetime, it is estimated, his walk was equal to two rounds of the whole world. In the year 1939, even at the age of 70, Gandhiji’s weight was 46 kg.
- It is a very interesting fact about Mahatma Gandhi that he never went to America in his entire life and it is also said that even after living abroad for 24 years, he never sat in an airplane.
- Mahatma Gandhi, who made a significant contribution to the independence of the country, spent 6 years and 5 months of his life in jail. Let us tell you that Gandhiji was arrested 13 times.
- When our India became independent on August 15, 1947, Mahatma Gandhi was not present to hear the speech of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, that night, he was on a fast that day.
- The influence of Mahatma Gandhi’s influential personality is all over the world, so there are 53 main roads in India and 48 roads abroad named in his honor.
- In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi had taken a pledge to observe fast on every Monday till the independence of the country and he kept fast for about 1 thousand 41 days in his life.
- Mahatma Gandhi made many struggles and movements throughout his life and also achieved success. Apart from this, he was also responsible for the civil rights movement in 4 continents and 12 countries.
- Gandhiji made many movements to get freedom for the country and also fought against the English for many years, but after 21 years of the death of the Mahatma, the British government had issued a postage stamp in his honor, which is commendable.
- Mahatma Gandhi, the ideal of freedom, made many movements for the country, many times he was also offered to adopt a political post, but Gandhi never adopted a political position in his entire life.
- It is also said about Gandhiji that when he started practicing law after completing his law studies, he could not even present his side properly in the court, even fighting the first case.
- At the time, he started trembling and left the debate in the middle and sat down, due to which he had failed to advocate in the initial phase.
- However, he later became a notorious and successful lawyer as well. Whereas in South Africa, he used to get 15 thousand dollars annually for advocacy, which is equivalent to about 10 lakh rupees today, while the annual income of many Indians is still less than this.
- There is a very interesting fact about Mahatma Gandhi that he used to put dentures, which he kept in the middle of his clothes and used it only while eating.
- Gandhiji had many admirers because of his ideals of life and his great ideas, but Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple company, also used to wear round glasses in honor of Mahatma Gandhi.
- It is also said about Mahatma Gandhi that he did not like to be photographed at all, but during the freedom struggle, he was such a great hero, who was photographed the most.
- The funeral procession of great man Mahatma Gandhi was celebrated in independent India. It has also been said to be the biggest funeral procession.
- Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by Godse in the garden of Birla Bhawan on January 30, 1948.
- A large number of people had gathered in his last journey, his funeral procession was about 8 kilometers long, in which the number of pedestrians was about one million, while more than 15 lakh people were standing on the way to pay their last respects.
Apart from these, there are many such facts about the life of the Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, which are very interesting and important.
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It is a matter of pride to have a person like Mahatma Gandhi born on the land of Bharat. His contribution to the nation can never be forgotten.